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Urban dating london

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Some executions took place within the confines of the Tower, but most were carried out on Tower Hill just beyond.The Crown Jewels are now on display in the Tower, as is a superb collection of arms and armour.

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The first mayor of London, Henry Fitzailwyn, probably took office in 1192.About 1087 a major fire destroyed many of the city’s wooden houses and St. In the rebuilding, houses of stone and tile began to appear, and some streets were partially cleansed by introducing open sewers and conduits, but wooden houses remained the norm.By 1200 the city and its suburbs involved a jurisdiction covering 680 acres (about 275 hectares)—which still defines the official limit of the City of London—and contained a population of 30,000 people.The first definite mention of London refers to the year Iceni tribesmen under Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) sacked the settlement.From traces of the fires they set, it can be determined that the city had already begun to spread across the Walbrook valley toward the hill where St. After the sack, the city was reconstructed, including a great basilica—an aisled hall 500 feet (150 metres) long.Other important trading groups, who assimilated easily into London’s population, were the Gascons, Flemish, and northern Italians.

When members of the last group were firmly established as bankers, the Jews, who had arrived with the Normans, were banished in 1290; they were not to return until 1656.

In 1300 London had about 80,000 inhabitants that were provisioned by a food-supply network extending 40–60 miles (65–100 km) into the surrounding countryside.

The city also drew “sea coal” from Newcastle upon Tyne (300 miles [480 km] distant by sea), and air pollution became a problem in London.

Because virtually every reign since then has added its contribution, the Tower incorporates architecture from many periods.

An official royal residence through the reign of James I in the early 17th century, it has also housed the Royal Mint, the Royal Menagerie, the public records, an observatory, an arsenal, and a prison.

The definition of what constitutes a city changes from time to time and place to place, but it is most usual to explain the term as a matter of demographics.