"All empirical evidence and logical reasoning concerning the shroud of Turin will lead any objective, rational person to the firm conclusion that the shroud is an artifact created by an artist in the fourteenth-century."The "shroud" of Turin is a woven cloth about 14 feet long and 3.5 feet wide with an image of a man on it.
He makes his complete case that the shroud is a medieval painting in Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin (March 1999).For example, it is claimed to be the negative image of a crucifixion victim.It is claimed to be the image of a man brutally beaten in a way which corresponds to the way Jesus is thought to have been treated.Avinoam Danin, a botanist from Hebrew University of Jerusalem claims he has identified pollen from the tumbleweed Gundelia tournefortii and a bean caper on the shroud.He claims this combination is found only around Jerusalem.Some have noted that the head is 5% too large for its body, the nose is disproportionate, and the arms are too long. In any case, the image is believed by many to be a negative image of the crucified Jesus and the shroud is believed to be his burial shroud. Apparently, the first historical mention of the shroud as the "shroud of Turin" is in the late 16th century when it was brought to the cathedral in that city, though it was allegedly discovered in Turkey during one of the so-called "Holy" Crusades in the so-called "Middle" Ages.
Most skeptics think the image is not a burial shroud, but a painting and a pious hoax. In 1988, the Vatican allowed the shroud to be dated by three independent sources--Oxford University, the University of Arizona, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology--and each of them dated the cloth as originating in medieval times, around 1350.
The shroud is a 14th century painting, not a 2000-year-old cloth with Jesus's image.
Mc Crone's theory is that "a male model was daubed with paint and wrapped in the sheet to create the shadowy figure of Jesus." The model was covered in red ochre, "a pigment found in earth and widely used in Italy during the Middle Ages, and pressed his forehead, cheekbones and other parts of his head and body on to the linen to create the image that exists today.
Some believers think the crown of thorns was made of this type of tumbleweed. His sample of pollen grains originated with Max Frei, who tape-lifted pollen grain samples from the shroud.
Frei's pollen grains have been controversial from the beginning.
The shroud allegedly was in a fire during the early part of the 16th century and, according to believers in the shroud's authenticity, that is what accounts for the carbon dating of the shroud as being no more than 650 years old.